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COVID-19 And Christian Action: Part 1
© 04.25.20 By D. Eric Williams

This paper remains "in process" and will be updated and edited as needed

It is not uncommon for Christians and non-Christians alike to say followers of Jesus should not bring their faith into civil society, especially in times of heightened political unrest. Yet, is it a biblical position? Should Christians remain aloof, keeping their faith and Christian opinions to themselves? In truth, there are a myriad of details to be discussed under this rubric. This paper primarily focuses on one aspect of Christian participation in the civic arena; public speech (and writing) directed at civil authorities and peaceful civil disobedience.

In this first section of the paper, we will examine the biblical justification for participation in civil society - specifically in the state of Idaho. The paper will summarize the actions of the governor of Idaho that require intervention on the part of Christians. There are two areas considered; the legal missteps of the governor (both constitutional and statute law) and the disregard for truth that provided a rationale for the lock-down. A subsequent section of the paper (to be published later) will detail some of the actions followers of Jesus might take in reply to the governor's unconstitutional and unlawful behavior and his disregard of the available information concerning the COVID-19.

The Character Of Submission
The Bible clearly instructs followers of Christ to submit to civil authorities (Deuteronomy 17:8-13, Romans 13:1-2. 1 Peter 2:10-13). Yet there is a caveat concerning this command along with some clarification provided by the Bible.

The caveat concerns the character of civil rulers. While Christians do not have the right to overthrow nettlesome leaders, they have the duty to defy sinful decrees. Simple refusal to follow an ungodly edict (civil disobedience) may be pursued as a private individual. Yet, the biblical model prefers enlisting a lower magistrates' participation when defying a decree; it is required when seeking to overthrow unrighteous leadership. An example of a lower magistrate disregarding a wicked order is found in Obadiah, the steward of king Ahab. He defied Queen Jezebel's pogrom against the prophets of Yahweh, hiding and provisioning 100 of them in two caves (2 Kings 18:3-4). Ehud and Jehu are examples of lesser magistrates leading rebellions against godless rulers (Judges 3:12-30, 2 Kings 9:1-ff).

The first clarification relates to the nature of our submission. Throughout Scripture, Believers are portrayed as proclaiming against injustice, especially when found in civil authorities. The old testament prophets, John the Baptist, the apostles and Jesus himself spoke truth to the civil and ecclesiastical power without hesitation. In each case, the harshest criticism was for leadership harming those under their care.

For instance, when the opponents of Jesus tried to manipulate him with dire warnings of Herod's malevolence, the Lord brushed it off with a denunciation of Herod's character. He knew Herod's heart and publicly marked him for what he was - a cunning, conniving predator (Luke 13:32). Our Lord also used scathing language to denounce the religious leaders who oppressed the people with their ungodly traditions (Matthew 23:1-36 and so on). Thus a member of Christ's kingdom is permitted, even required, to call out corrupt rulers and proclaim the godly alternative.

A second clarification has to do with the locus of authority. In ancient Rome the emperor was considered the fount of authority. Christians understood God as the source of all power (Proverbs 8:15-16 and so on), so they based their obedience to Rome on the requirement to obey God. But from a human standpoint, all authority flowed from the Emperor. Therefore, when Peter said submit to every human authority because of the Lord, whether to the Emperor as the supreme authority or to governors as those sent out by him to punish those who do what is evil and to praise those who do what is good (1 Peter 2:13-14), he did not contradict Paul who said there is no authority except from God, and those that exist are instituted by God (Romans 13:1). Certainly God is the author of all authority but the power exercised on earth can always be traced back to an earthy point of origin; we might say it is the place God has remitted authority for distribution.

Most modern nations have some form of constitutional civil rule. In the USA, all civil authority rests upon the Declaration of Independence and the constitution of the United Sates. Even the individual State constitutions acknowledge the priority of the national documents. In addition, civil leaders are required to take an oath to uphold the United States constitution along with whatever primary texts are specific to their jurisdiction. Thus, in the USA, authority resides in foundational documents, not in a person or persons. This is why the exercise of authority is passed from one to another each time there is an election. The day someone declares himself president for life will be the day the locus of authority has (illegitimately) shifted. As it now stands, civil leaders must not exceed the authority doled out to them by the repository of power; the US constitution and the germane jurisdictional record. If they do, the citizens of the land – especially Christians – have the duty to forcefully speak against overreach - and engage in open defiance of unlawful edicts.

The Unlawful Exercise Of Authority
We should also recognize what represents an unlawful edict. Generally, it is a simple matter of shining the light of God's word on the laws of the land. For instance, the laws allowing abortion are clearly ungodly and must be resisted. Obviously Christians must never "take advantage" of the devilish decree and avail themselves to the heinous practice of murder in the womb. Moreover, they must speak against the practice and denounce the civil leaders who support it. Also, Christians should participate in public protests against abortion and diligently labor to see laws enacted that prohibit the practice.

Civil compacts or covenants among men must also be honored, including agreements between the government and the governed. Failure to do so is unlawful behavior displeasing to God. For instance, one reason God exiled Judah, destroying Jerusalem through the agency of the Babylonians, was the failure of king Zedekiah to give obeisance to Nebuchadnezzar as he had sworn before God to do (Ezekiel 17:15-20, 2 Chronicles 36:12-14).

When a civil leader in the USA takes an oath to uphold the constitution of the United States along with the documents pertinent to their jurisdiction, he or she typically does so with one hand on the Bible, swearing an oath before God. In short, civil leaders swear to acknowledge the founding documents as the locus of authority for their actions of government. Any deviation from this course results in unjust edicts and such decrees must be opposed by the citizens of the land through aggressive denunciation of the action and open defiance of the decree (cf. Jeremiah 1:1-3 and so on).

In the following paragraphs we will examine how the forgoing principles apply to the current situation in the state of Idaho. Specifically, did the COVID-19 give rise to a situation that a reasonable and informed person would consider cause for declaring a state of extreme emergency? And, having declared a state of extreme emergency, did the lock-down of the state adhere to statute law and the basic tenets of the constitution of the United States and the constitution of the state of Idaho?

A Violation of Idaho Statute Law
Every civil authority in the State of Idaho swore to uphold the constitution of the United States as well as the State constitution and other state statutes. In doing so they acknowledged the source of their authority (under God) resides in the foundational documents of the Nation and State.

When Idaho governor Brad Little issued an order to "self isolate" on March 25, 2020, he claimed the authority to do so was found in the Idaho statutes, Title 46, sections 467-601 and 46-1008, providing him the authority to order the director of state health and welfare to issue the order. The authority to extend the order on April 15 was also based upon these sections of Idaho code.

Statute Title 46, sections 467-601 and 46-1008 grant the governor authority to enact drastic measures during a "state of extreme emergency." This is defined as the "existence of conditions of extreme peril to the safety of persons and property within the state" including an epidemic (section 46-601 [1] [a]). Under these conditions the governor may "suspend the provisions of any regulations prescribing the procedures for conduct of public business that would in any way prevent, hinder, or delay necessary action in coping with the emergency" and "commandeer or utilize any private property, real or personal, if he finds this necessary to cope with the disaster emergency" (section 46-1008 [5] [a]). It is questionable whether such expansive authority passes constitutional muster. Nevertheless, these laws are "on the books."

At the behest of the governor, the state director of health and welfare claimed authorization to declare and enforce a lock-down according to Idaho code Title 56, Public Assistance And Welfare, chapter 10 section 56-1003, paragraph 7. There we read, the director, under rules adopted by the board of health and welfare, shall have the power to impose and enforce orders of isolation and quarantine to protect the public from the spread of infectious or communicable diseases or from contamination from chemical or biological agents, whether naturally occurring or propagated by criminal or terrorist act.

However, according to Title 56, Public Assistance And Welfare chapter 10, section 56-1001, paragraph 4:"Isolation" means the separation of infected persons, or of persons suspected to be infected, from other persons to such places, under such conditions, and for such time as will prevent transmission of the infectious agent.

Moreover, title 56, chapter 10, section 56-1001, paragraph 8 says: "Quarantine" means the restriction placed on the entrance to and exit from the place or premises where an infectious agent or hazardous material exists.

Each of these definitions concern the isolation and quarantine of people who are sick. There is nothing about locking down the entire state. There is no authority granted to shut down businesses, to curtail freedom of movement or freedom of assembly and worship apart from a targeted isolation or quarantine of infected persons.

Nevertheless, the order mandates the closure of bars, nightclubs, restaurants, cafes, gyms and recreation facilities and forbids gatherings outside the home for social, spiritual and recreational purposes. Prohibited activities include but are not limited to: community, civic, public, leisure, faith-based, parades, concerts, festivals, conventions, fundraisers, funerals weddings and similar activities. All are forbidden by an appeal to the right to impose "isolation" and "quarantine" as provided in Title 56, chapter 10 section 56-1003, paragraph 7 noted above. In addition, "failure to comply with this Order could constitute a misdemeanor punishable by fine, imprisonment or both."

A Violation of the US and State Constitutions
The constitution of the State of Idaho declares that our inalienable rights include; life and liberty; acquiring, possessing and protecting property; pursuing happiness and securing safety. We also have the guaranty of religious liberty – including the mode of worship. All of these rights – part of the State constitution since its inception in 1890 – have been violated by the governor's order.

The governor's order is not only in defiance of the state statues; it also violates the basic principles of the United States constitution and the constitution of the state of Idaho including the principle of the separation of powers. Under the order, the governor has unilaterally created new laws and regulations for the entire population of the state. This is not the prerogative of the administrative branch of the government. Instead, this is a privilege of the legislative branch. Moreover, there are specific principles of the constitution the governor has ignored.

Freedom of assembly
The first amendment of the United States constitution provides for the "right of the people peaceably to assemble." This is echoed in the constitution of the state of Idaho, article 1 section 10 which says, The people shall have the right to assemble in a peaceable manner, to consult for their common good; to instruct their representatives, and to petition the legislature for the redress of grievances. Frankly, it is not conceivable there might be any situation that would allow civil government at any level to curtail this fundamental right. Certainly Idaho state statutes allowing for isolation and quarantine have no bearing whatsoever on the matter apart from the effect it may have on an individual person or few persons infected and under isolation or quarantine.

Freedom of worship
The First Amendment of the United States constitution also provides for freedom of religion. this acknowledgment of the God-given right of conscience is echoed in the constitution of the state of Idaho. Article 1 section 4 says in part, The exercise and enjoyment of religious faith and worship shall forever be guaranteed . . .nor shall any preference be given by law to any religious denomination or mode of worship. A statewide lock-down violates this section of the national constitution and the state constitution. Clearly, to restrict the congregating of people for worship is to impinge upon the exercise and enjoyment of religious faith and worship. It is also giving preference to a particular mode of worship (ie. online, drive up social distancing within the church building).

Due process
The lock-down order is also a direct violation of the fifth amendment of the US constitution and article 1 section 1 of the Idaho constitution. For, "the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment firmly establishes your right to purchase a lawful product in interstate commerce from willing seller as fundamental."1 This understanding is reflected in the Idaho constitution: All men are by nature free and equal, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are . . .acquiring, possessing and protecting property. Yet the governor's lock-down order has directly infringed upon this right, declaring some commercial activity unnecessary and therefore off-limits to the free citizens of the state of Idaho. Rather than protecting property, the order has caused the destruction of property in the damage inflicted on "non-essential" businesses. It has also barred people from the purchase, possession and enjoyment of property.

Questionable Science
The governor justified his use of Title 46 powers by saying, "the scientific evidence shows at this stage of the emergency, it is essential to slow virus transmission as much as possible to protect the most vulnerable and to prevent the health care system from being overwhelmed." But, is that true? Is there actual hard science to back up the claim the COVID-19 created conditions of extreme peril to the safety of persons and property within the state? As we will see, the answer is emphatically no.

The Modeling "Science" Is Dramatically Wrong
The actions taken by civil authorities in Idaho and elsewhere have been based almost exclusively upon the COVID-19 projection models provided by the Imperial College of Great Britain and The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) research center at the University of Washington. The Imperial College model, produced by epidemiologist Neil Ferguson, predicted 500,000 deaths in the United Kingdom and 2.2 million in the United States of America unless drastic measures were taken to stop the spread of the coronavirus. Almost immediately it became clear the Imperial College model was wildly inaccurate. The IHME modeling has likewise lacked any connection to real world events. In each case, the models were rapidly adjusted - several times - in an effort to save face. Indeed the claim was made that dramatic changes were needed in the modeling because of the swift action of civil authorities in announcing lock-downs. However, these claims do not stand up to scrutiny: changes in COVID-19 statistics appeared far too soon to have been affected by any lock-down. In both the USA and UK lock-downs started after conditions leading to the peak infections and COVID-19 related deaths had already passed.2 Moreover,

aside from New York, nationally there's been no health system crisis. In fact, to be truly correct there has been a health system crisis, but the crisis is that the hospitals are empty. This is true in Florida where the lock-down was late, this is true in southern California where the lock-down was early, it's true in Oklahoma where there is no statewide lock-down. There doesn't seem to be any correlation between the lock-down and whether or not the epidemic has spread wide and fast.3

Another troubling piece of information concerning the "expert" models is their purposeful misuse by doctors Anthony Fauci and Deborah Birx. The chart first displayed at the March 31, 2020 White House briefing that launched a wave of lock-downs was a deceitful combination of the Imperial College model and the IHME model.

For the White House science team to meld the Ferguson and Murray curves into a single graph was quite inappropriate, because they are quite different. The Murray/IHME model continually monitors actual data on state and national deaths and hospitalization, and adjusts the projected epidemic curve to incorporate new information.

It was disingenuous for the White House team to imply - by wrongly comparing epidemic curves from two different models - that these mitigation strategies may have saved two million American lives. The British model that once postulated a scenario in which 2.2 million U.S. lives could be at risk was simply wrong, and references to it should stop.
4

Truly, references to both models should stop. "That the IHME model keeps changing is evidence of its lack of reliability as a predictive tool," said epidemiologist Ruth Etzioni of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, who has served on a search committee for IHME. "That it is being used for policy decisions and its results interpreted wrongly is a travesty unfolding before our eyes."5

Lock Downs Do Not Effectively Slow The Virus
The truth is, there is no empirical evidence to show lock-downs do anything to mitigate the spread of the virus.6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Indeed, the virus follows a fixed pattern with or without lock-downs11 Also, the majority expert opinion is that lock-downs will most likely make matters worse down the road.12, 13, 14 It is also important to note that expert opinion suggesting the uselessness of lock-downs was published two weeks before governor Little announced a lock-down.15, 16 Subsequent study has verified the earlier opinion, showing that

irrespective of whether [a] country quarantined like Israel, or went about business as usual like Sweden, coronavirus peaked and subsided in the exact same way. In the exact, same, way. . . . all countries experienced seemingly identical coronavirus infection patterns, with the number of infected peaking in the sixth week and rapidly subsiding by the eighth week. 17, 18

This study by professor Isaac Ben-Israel of Tel Aviv University in Israel was available by the time governor Little decided to extend the lock-down beyond April 15, 2020.

Rapid Herd Immunity Is Preferable
Even if lock-downs were effective in significantly slowing the spread of the virus, it would be the wrong thing to do.

With all respiratory diseases, the only thing that stops the disease is herd immunity. About 80% of the people need to have had contact with the virus, and the majority of them won't even have recognized that they were infected, or they had very, very mild symptoms, especially if they are children. So, it's very important to keep the schools open and kids mingling to spread the virus to get herd immunity as fast as possible, and then the elderly people, who should be separated, and the nursing homes should be closed during that time, can come back and meet their children and grandchildren after about 4 weeks when the virus has been exterminated.19, 20

Indeed, overprotecting people can make the virus more lethal in the long run.

Our current everyone-stay-home approach is anything but enlightened by immunological theory. Quite the opposite: As billions of people worldwide are currently in their homes, in close confinement, in situations of extreme fear and psychological distress, being told by their governments to go to the grocery store as rarely as possible, we are creating an environment which is more and more conducive for facilitating a virus with enhanced virulence in the future. How are we doing this?
1. Lowering everyone's resistance to viruses by scaring, stressing, and discouraging them from normal activities including buying food and drink.
2. Keeping everyone at home in effect creates just the immunosuppressive scenario that fosters flu during the winter time -- cold, close quarters and stress.
3, Discouraging direct human contact including hugging and kissing, and directly loving one another suppresses immunity. With social distancing, our species never would have made it this far.
4. Preventing young people from being exposed to COVID 19 short circuits "herd immunity."
21

Ironically, there is substantial evidence the country is well on its way to herd immunity.22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 This shows the lock-downs did little or nothing to stop the spread of the virus. It also supports the position the COVID-19 is a relatively mild disease for most people. For, if a large swath of the population has already had the disease - with mild or no symptoms - there is no reason to worry about a tidal wave of COVID-19 patients swamping our hospitals. As mentioned above, the peak has already passed. Even in New York City, there was never a danger of running short of ICU beds or critical care equipment.28, 29, 30 The truth is, thousands of hospitals are in dire straits financially because of the COVID-19 scare; they curtailed elective surgeries to make room for the promised caronavirus wave - only to find themselves without patients.31, 32, 33, 34 Unfortunately, the incongruity of medical workers being laid off or suffering reduced wages in the middle of a "pandemic" is lost on the ruling elite.

The evidence that the COVID-19 is widespread also tells us the death rate for the caronavirus is much lower than the "experts" originally opined. In fact, it appears the fatality rate for the caronavirus is not much different than the seasonal flu.35, 36, 37, 38 Once again, common sense tells us governor Little's lock-down order was without warrant.

Proven Treatments Are Available
Common sense also tells us that if there were an effective treatment for the COVID-19 severe "social distancing" and a state-wide lock-down would be unnecessary. Contrary to "popular belief" there is an effective treatment for the COVID-19.

Early in the timeline of the pandemic, evidence emerged that there was an effective treatment available for the disease. As early as March 17, 2020 it was reported the world-renowned French researcher Didier Raoult MD, PhD, had determined that patients treated with hydroxychloriquine and azithromycin "were virologically cured."39 His first report was based upon evidence gathered in treating a group of about 29 patients. A second study involving 1000 patients arrived at the same conclusion: hydroxychloriquine and azithromycin were effective in treating the COVID-19.40

In addition to the French study, anecdotal evidence of the effectiveness of hydroxychloriquine and azithromycin as a treatment for the COVID-19 began to accumulate. Indeed, it become clear the most efficacious protocol was hydroxychloriquine and zinc, given early in the progress of the disease. This approach was used with great success by doctors in New York and California41, 42 while hydroxychloroquine was used in some fashion as a treatment for the COVID-19 by thousands of doctors throughout the world.43 The science on this has been understood for years. Zinc is an antiviral but its effectiveness is limited because of the barrier of the cell wall. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are a zinc ionophores (meaning they enable zinc to pass through the cell wall).44 Thus pairing hydroxychloroquine with zinc in treating the COVID-19 results in a rapid recovery of the patient. This data is readily available and there is no reason governor Little should not have known this. If he did know and ignored it, it renders his decision to lock-down the state all the more grievous. Governor Little should have strongly promoted the use of hydroxychloroquine and zinc in treating the COVID-19.

The Economic Fallout Will Ruin More Lives Than The Virus
The economic fallout resulting from governor Little's lock-down has resulted in millions of dollars in losses. Businesses considered "unessential" by a heartless bureaucrat, safe and secure in his taxpayer-funded position, have been forced to close their doors. Think about that for a moment. Who is to say what is essential and what is nonessential? Moreover, the callous disregard for the thousands of hours, the blood sweat and tears poured into the hundreds of "mom-and-pop" businesses, casually designated as "nonessential is mind-boggling. Governor Little's order has no foundation in reality. In truth, there is no such thing as a nonessential business. If it were nonessential, it would not exist in the first place. One of the great ironies of the COVID-19 disaster is the economic devastation visited upon the healthcare industry. This is not because waves of patients have swamped hospitals but because thousands of hospitals stand nearly empty in the midst of a "pandemic." In some states the governor mandated hospitals curtail all "elective surgeries." In Idaho it was simply a strong recommendation; a recommendation hospitals would have been wise to ignore. There has been no tidal wave of coronavirus patients anywhere in Idaho. Even in the "hot spots" of Boise or Blaine County there has never been a danger of healthcare providers being overwhelmed. Instead, hospitals all over the state have cut pay, cut hours and furloughed medical staff. Nevertheless, governor Little remains unconcerned. He mouths the appropriate empathetic talk but his insistence that things will not return to normal until there is a vaccine shows he has no care for the devastation visited upon the lives of Idaho citizens.

Preliminary Summary
One must ask, does not the governor of the state of Idaho have someone keeping track of the current research and writing on the COVID-19? It seems governor Little made up his mind based upon the wildly inaccurate Imperial College and IHME models. It seems he is not interested in the expert opinion of those who sharply disagreed with the models. It seems he had no regard for the information concerning inexpensive and effective treatments. It appears he had no real concern for the comprehensive ramifications of a state-wide lock-down. This is nothing less than a display of willful ignorance and arrogance. Governor Little is not concerned with the lives and welfare of the people of Idaho; he is interested in pushing his agenda – no more no less

Next: Where Do We Go From Here?
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1. Andrew P. Napolitano, "Do governors Have the Right to Decide Which Activities Are Essential?," The Washington Times (The Washington Times, April 15, 2020), https://www.washingtontimes.com/ news/2020/apr/15/do-governors-have-the-right-to-decide-which-human-/

2. Abe Hawken, "UK Coronavirus Crisis Peaked BEFORE Lockdown and Mass Testing Was Way Forward, Leading Expert Claims," The Sun, April 20, 2020, https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/ 11438775/coronavirus-peaked-three-weeks-before-lockdown/

3. Adam Shaw, "Meet the Former NYT Reporter Who Is Challenging the Coronavirus Narrative," Fox News (FOX News Network, April 9, 2020), https://www.foxnews.com/politics/ex-nyt-reporter-challenging-the-coronavirus-narrative

4. Alan Reynolds, "THE BIG LIE: Did COVID-19 Mitigation Save Two Million Lives?," EconomicPolicyJournal.com, April 19, 2020, https://www.economicpolicyjournal.com/2020/04/the-big-lie-did-covid-19-mitigation.html

5. Sharon Begley, "Influential Covid-19 Model Shouldn't Guide U.S. Policies, Critics Say," STAT, April 18, 2020, https://www.statnews.com/2020/04/17/influential-covid-19-model-uses-flawed-methods-shouldnt-guide-policies-critics-say/

6. Fraser Myers, "'There's No Direct Evidence That the Lockdowns Are Working," April 17, 2020, https://www.spiked-online.com/2020/04/17/theres-no-direct-evidence-that-the-lockdowns-are-working/

7. Douglas Axe, "Our Heroic Efforts to Stop the Coronavirus Could Be Great Pain for Little Gain," The Stream, April 18, 2020, https://stream.org/our-heroic-efforts-to-stop-the-coronavirus-could-be-great-pain-for-little-gain/

8. Dennis Prager, "Has the Lockdown Worked?," PJ Media, April 14, 2020, https://pjmedia.com/news-and-politics/has-the-lockdown-worked/

9. Greg Piper, "University Researchers Find 'No Additional Decline' in Coronavirus Infection Rate from Lockdowns," The College Fix, April 7, 2020, https://www.thecollegefix.com/university-researchers-find-no-additional-decline-in-coronavirus-infection-rate-from-lockdowns/

10. Lyman Stone, "Lockdowns Don't Work," Public Discourse, April 22, 2020, https://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2020/04/62572/

11. Isaac Ben-Israel, "The End of Exponential Growth: The Decline in the Spread of Coronavirus", Tel Aviv University, https://www.medvin.me/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Corona-declinedocx1904.pdf

12. Freddie Sayers, "Swedish Expert: Why Lockdowns Are the Wrong Policy - The Post," UnHerd, April 17, 2020, https://unherd.com/thepost/coming-up-epidemiologist-prof-johan-giesecke-shares-lessons-from-sweden/?=frpo

13. Bill Sardi, "Will Quarantines Backfire?" LewRockwell.com, March 19, 2020, https://www.lewrockwell.com/2020/03/bill-sardi/quarantines-may-backfire/

14. "Why Social Distancing Might Actually Result In More Coronavirus Deaths," The Federalist, April 7, 2020, https://thefederalist.com/2020/04/03/why-severe-social-distancing-might-actually-result-in-more-coronavirus-deaths/

15. John P.A. Ioannidis, "In the Coronavirus Pandemic, We're Making Decisions without Reliable Data," STAT, March 17, 2020, https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/17/a-fiasco-in-the-making-as-the-coronavirus-pandemic-takes-hold-we-are-making-decisions-without-reliable-data/

16. John P. A. Ioannidis, "Coronavirus Disease 2019: The Harms of Exaggerated Information and Non-Evidence-Based Measures," Wiley Online Library (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, March 11, 2020), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/eci.13222

17. Marina Medvin, "Israeli Professor Shows Virus Follows Fixed Pattern," Townhall (Townhall.com, April 15, 2020), https://townhall.com/columnists/marinamedvin/2020/04/15/israeli-professor-shows-virus-follows-fixed-pattern-n2566915

18. Isaac Ben-Israel, https://www.medvin.me/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Corona-declinedocx1904.pdf

19. Edward Stringham, "Stand Up for Your Rights, Says Bio-Statistician Knut M. Wittkowski," AIER, April 20, 2020, https://www.aier.org/article/stand-up-for-your-rights-says-bio-statistican-knut-m-wittkowski/

20. KNUT M. WITTKOWSKI et al., "Perspectives on the Pandemic, Episode 2: A Conversation with Knut Wittkowski, PhD, Apr 1-2, 2020," April 1, 2020, https://ratical.org/PerspectivesOnPandemic-II.html

21.Brandon P. Reines, "Viruses 101: How Overprotecting People from COVID 19 Could Make It More Lethal," American Thinker, April 14, 2020, https://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2020/04/viruses_101_how_overprotecting_people_from_covid_19_could_make_it_more_lethal.html)

22. Amanda Prestigiacomo, "Early Antibody Testing In Chicago: 30-50% Of Those Tested For COVID-19 Already Have Antibodies, Report Says," The Daily Wire (The Daily Wire, April 11, 2020), https://www.dailywire.com/news/early-antibody-testing-in-chicago-30-50-of-those-tested-for-covid-19-already-have-antibodies-report-says

23. Jacob Sullum, "Official COVID-19 Numbers Represent Just 6% of Total Infections, a New Analysis Suggests," Reason.com (Reason, April 14, 2020), https://reason.com/2020/04/12/official-covid-19-numbers-represent-just-6-of-total-infections-a-new-analysis-suggests/

24. Kathleen Doheny, "New Model Shows COVID More Widespread, Less Severe," WebMD (WebMD, April 18, 2020), https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200418/new-model-shows-covid-more-widespread-less-severe

25. J. D. Rucker, "Second Study Shows Much Lower Mortality Rate for COVID-19 than Previously Believed," NOQ Report - Conservative Christian News, Opinions, and Quotes, April 21, 2020, https://noqreport.com/2020/04/21/second-study-shows-much-lower-mortality-rate-for-covid-19-than-previously-believed/

26. Paige St. John, "New Signs Suggest Coronavirus Was in California Far Earlier than Anyone Knew," Los Angeles Times, April 11, 2020. https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/new-signs-suggest-coronavirus-was-in-california-far-earlier-than-anyone-knew/ar-BB12ukLf.

27. Mark Slavo, "New Oxford Study Hidden By Mainstream Media: Millions Already Infected, Recovered, & Immune," SHTF Plan - When It Hits The Fan, Don't Say We Didn't Warn You, March 31, 2020, https://www.shtfplan.com/headline-news/new-oxford-study-hidden-by-mainstream-media-millions-already-infected-recovered-immune_03312020

28. Warner Todd Huston, "Media Hyped New York's Fake Need for 40,000 Ventilators -- They Only Needed 5,000" The Washington Sentinel, April 18, 2020, https://thewashingtonsentinel.com/media-hyped-new-yorks-fake-need-for-40000-ventilators-they-only-needed-5000/

29. C. Douglas Golden, "Gov. Cuomo Shatters Media Narrative on Trump COVID Deaths: We Haven't Lost 1 Patient for Lack of Equipment," The Western Journal (The Western Journal, April 18, 2020), https://www.westernjournal.com/gov-cuomo-shatters-media-narrative-trump-covid-deaths-havent-lost-1-patient-lack-equipment/

30. Simon Kent, "1,000-Bed Hospital Ship USNS Comfort to Leave New York City," Breitbart, April 23, 2020, https://www.breitbart.com/health/2020/04/23/1000-bed-hospital-ship-usns-comfort-to-leave-new-york-city/

31. John Daniel Davidson, "We Didn't 'Flatten The Curve,' We Flattened The U.S. Health Care System," The Federalist, April 23, 2020, https://thefederalist.com/2020/04/23/instead-of-flattening-the-curve-we-flattened-hospitals-doctors-and-the-u-s-health-care-system/

32. Victoria Taft, "Forget PPE, Oregon COVID Nurse Calls for J-O-B After Dozens Got Laid Off. They're Not Alone.," News and Politics, April 22, 2020, https://pjmedia.com/trending/forget-ppe-oregon-covid-nurse-calls-for-j-o-b-after-dozens-got-laid-off-theyre-not-alone/ 33. Laura Garcia, "San Antonio Hospitals Cut Hours, Furlough Workers - Even in Face of Coronavirus Pandemic," ExpressNews.com (Express-News, April 3, 2020), https://www.expressnews.com/business/article/San-Antonio-hospitals-cut-hours-furlough-workers-15178436.php

34. Keith Eldridge, "Hospitals Sit Idle amid Pandemic, Plead with Inslee to Let Them Reopen Fully," KOMO, April 18, 2020, https://komonews.com/news/coronavirus/hospitals-sitting-idle-amid-pandemic-plead-with-inslee-to-let-them-reopen 35. Justin Silverman, Nathaniel Hubert and Alex Washburn, https://github.com/jsilve24/ili_surge/blob/master/Silverman_Hupert_and_Washburn.pdf 36. George Fraser, "How Many Americans Have COVID-19?," Fivetran, April 17, 2020, https://fivetran.com/blog/covid-19-count

37. Kathleen Doheny, "New Model Shows COVID More Widespread, Less Severe," WebMD (WebMD, April 18, 2020), https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200418/new-model-shows-covid-more-widespread-less-severe

38. Eran Bendavid et al., "COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California," medRxiv (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, April 17, 2020), https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.14.20062463v1 39. Hank Berrien, "French Peer-Reviewed Study: Our Treatment Cured 100% Of Coronavirus Patients," The Daily Wire (The Daily Wire, March 19, 2020), https://www.dailywire.com/news/french-peer-reviewed-study-our-treatment-cured-100-of-coronavirus-patients

40. "French Researcher Dr. Didier Raoult Has Now Treated 1000 Coronavirus Patient with 99.3% Success Rate [Update]: Tech News: Startups News," Tech News | Startups News, April 10, 2020, https://techstartups.com/2020/04/06/french-researcher-dr-didier-raoult-has-now-treated-1000-coronavirus-patient-with-99-3-success-rate/ 41. "New Updates from Dr. Vladimir Zelenko: Cocktail of Hydroxychloroquine, Zinc Sulfate and Azithromycin Are Showing Phenomenon Results with 900 Coronavirus Patients Treated - Must Watch Video: Tech News: Startups News," Tech News | Startups News, April 7, 2020, https://techstartups.com/2020/04/05/new-updates-dr-vladimir-zelenko-cocktail-hydroxychloroquine-zinc-sulfate-azithromycin-showing-phenomenon-results-900-coronavirus-patients-treated-must-watch-video/)

42. Denise Dador, "Even as Chloroquine Shows Potential for Treating COVID-19, Doctors Warn Caution Needed," ABC7 Los Angeles, April 7, 2020, https://abc7.com/health/doctors-say-caution-needed-in-drug-treatment-for-covid-19/6082485/

43. Tyler Worley, "TRUMP VINDICATED: Over 6,000 Doctors Rate Hydroxychloroquine 'Most Effective Therapy' For Coronavirus," Trending Politics, Trump News, and Breaking News Updated 24/7, April 2, 2020, https://trendingpolitics.com/trump-vindicated-over-6-doctors-rate-hydroxychloroquine-most-effective-therapy-for-coronavirus/

44. Jing Xue et al., "Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore," PloS one (Public Library of Science, October 1, 2014), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4182877/


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